Index to Chiropractic Literature
Index to Chiropractic Literature
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ChiroSH Online

ChiroSH (Chiropractic Subject Headings) is a controlled vocabulary created by members of the Chiropractic Library Collaboration, an organization affiliated with the Association of Chiropractic Colleges. ChiroSH is used by the Index to Chiropractic Literature’s indexers, and by catalogers in health sciences libraries. This online version (under development) is an innovation we hope will be widely used by students, chiropractors and researchers. The first edition of ChiroSH was released in 1984 and the seventh edition is currently in production.

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Also known as: Aronow Biomechanical-Soft Tissue Method

This subject heading has not yet been applied to ICL articles.
More information is needed for this term.

Also known as: Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

Developed by W.C. Lee, D.C., and Arlan W. Fuhr, D.C. This technique makes use of a handheld mechanical adjusting device called the Activator Adjusting Instrument (AAI), developed to simulate a thumb thrust.
Suggested reading: Huggins T, Luberic Boras A, Gleberzon BJ, Popescu M, Bahry LA.  Clinical effectiveness of the activator adjusting instrument in the management of musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review of the literature. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012 Mar;56(1):49-57.
Search Activator Method in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Also known as: ART

Developed by P. Michael Leahy, D.C.
Active Release Technique is designed to accomplish three unique objectives: restoring free and unimpeded motion of all soft tissues, the release of entrapped nerves, vasculature, and lymphatics, and to re-establish optimal texture, resilience, and function of soft tissues.
Source: Howitt SD, Wong J, Zabukovec S. The conservative treatment of Trigger Thumb using Graston Technique and Active Release Techniques. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2006 Dec;50(4):249-254.
Search Active Release Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.

Also known as: ABC

Developed by Jesse Jutkowitz, D.C. Learn about ABC™  from Dr. Jutkowitz .
ABC™ hypothesises that specific vertebra can lose optimal leverage and move in an anterior direction, causing the elements above to collapse forward.
Source: Venning G, Vivier T, Doyle M. Improvement in craniovertebral angle in a patient with anterior head posture using advanced biostructural correction: A case report . Asia-Pac Chiropr J. 2021 ;2(1):1-9.

Developed by Nicholas Spano, D.C. Suggested reading: Advanced Muscle Palpation [by] Dr. Nicholas Spano [2015]
AMP [Advanced Muscle Palpation] is a system of analysis that hypothesizes that “resting segmental muscular activity is homeostatic in nature.” It theorizes that the central nervous system coordinates muscle activity such that the muscles are acting in attempt to restore balance and normal structure. Therefore, assessing “working” muscles gives the doctor insight into how the body is attempting to correct misalignments and informs the clinician on the line of force application for the corrective thrust.
Source: Hanson D, Rupp A. Resolution of sensory processing disorder, sleep challenges, and speech delay in a child following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation: A case study and selective review of the literature [case report, review]. J Pediatr Matern & Fam Health - Chiropr. 2018 Sep;2018:123-137.

Also known as: Meniges / adjustment

Developed by James R. Alberts, D.C., author of: Alberts' cerebral meningeal stress syndrome: A primary release of the central and autonomic nervous system. San Mateo, California: James R. Alberts, ©1959.

Dr. Alberts discussed the relationship between the cranium, meningeal tension, and emotional stress. Alberts also developed a neurologic model of cranial function that regards the neurologic organization of fault patterns and serves as a foundation for much of the Applied Kinesiology cranial concept.
Source: Cohen, Don. An Introduction to Craniosacral Therapy; Anatomy, Function and Treatment. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1995.

Created by Virgil B. Chrane (1905-1963): "The road to high-level wellness lies in connecting with our ultimate energy source. There is no act or service that one human can render to another that is more significant or meaningful than helping them to accomplish this connection."
See or
See also: Chrane Condylar Lift

Developed by Robert Wiehe, D.C.

Developed by William J. Kotheimer, D.C. Book on

Also known as: ASBE

Developed by Ron Aragona, D.C., PhD.  See ASBE Chiropractic.
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Also known as: AUCB

Developed by Lou Tiscareño, D.C., and William Amalu, D.C. Search Applied Upper Cervical Biomechanics in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Upper Cervical Techniques

Developed by John Hurley, D.C., and Helen Sanders, D.C. View preview of Aquarian-Age Healing For You on Google Books. From the Foreword.

Also known as: Arnholz Muscle Adjusting

Developed by Walter W. Arnholz, D.C.
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Developed by Roy W. Sweat, D.C. Search Atlas Orthogonal Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Upper Cervical Techniques

Developed by A.A. Wernsing, D.C. Search Atlas Specific Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Upper Cervical Techniques

Also known as: Cavitation

The sound that is associated with spinal or joint manipulation. Search Audible Release in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. [ICLID 18647]

Also known as: Bioenergetic Synchronization Technique, Morter B.E.S.T. Technique, Morter Bioenergetic Synchronization Technique

Developed by Ted Morter, Jr., D.C., M.A., as an outgrowth of Logan, Gonstead, and diversified techniques and kinesiology. [ICLID 19208]
See also: Reflex Techniques, Kinesiology, Applied [MeSH]

Also known as: Baastrup’s Disease, Baastrup’s Syndrome, Kissing Spine Syndrome, Michotte's Syndrome

Refers to the radiological presence of closely approximated and touching adjacent spinous processes. Also know as: arthrosis interspinosa, diarthrosis interspinosa, kissing osteophytes, kissing spine, kissing spinouses disease, osteoarthrosis processus spinosi vertebrarum lumbalum, steoarthrosis interspinalis.

Developed by John N. Bandy, D.C.

Also known as: BCS

Developed by Robert Boyd, D.O.
See also: Cranial Therapy

Also known as: BGI Seminars

Developed by Sue Brown, D.C.

Also known as: New-Stim Bio-Kinetics

A technique that was developed by Lawrence E. Newsum, D.C., and makes use of a mechanical stimulation instrument called the New-Stim Stimulator.

Developed by Ron Cargioli, D.C., and Annette Cargioli, D.C.
See also: Emotional-Polarity Technique, Polarity Therapy

Developed by Richard A. Broeringmeyer, D.C.

Also known as: Bioenergetic Sensitivity and Enzyme Therapy

Developed by Ellen Cutler, D.C.

Also known as: Blair Toggle-Torque Adjustive Thrust

Developed by William G. Blair, D.C. Search Blair Upper Cervical Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Upper Cervical Techniques

Developed by Major Bertrand De Jarnette, D.C.; evolved into Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique.
See also: Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique

Developed by John Blye, D.C.

Developed by René Thomas Espy, D.C.

Developed by A.G.A. Buxton, D.C.

Also known as: Relatology

Developed by Willard Carver, D.C.

A model of chiropractic practice in which the patient pays the provider in cash for services rendered. The patient may apply for reimbursement from an insurance company; the chiropractor does not handle insurance claims, nor depend upon insurance reimbursement for payment. (Based on the MeSH term Fee-for-Service Plans.)
See also: Practice Management, Chiropractic

Also known as: CSFT

Developed by Don Glassey, D.C.
See: Whedon JM, Glassey D. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.  Altern Ther Health Med. 2009;15(3):54-60.

Developed by Mark Charrette, D.C.

Also known as: CPK

Developed by Milton E. Dowty, D.C.
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Developed by Robert Walker, D.C.
See also: Manipulation, Cranial

Developed by Edwin H. Kimmel, D.C.

Developed by W. Heath Quigley, D.C., M.S.

Also known as: Clinical Chiropractic


See MeSH for the list of allowable qualifiers (subheadings) following Chiropractic. Also, consult MeSH for a list of accepted publication types when adding a publication type to this heading in a catalog record. Publication types are not added to citations in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.

Consult MeSH scope notes for an explanation of the difference between Chiropractic (the specialty) and Manipulation, Chiropractic (the act of adjusting a patient to relieve pressure or pain).

Manipulation, Chiropractic is used as a heading for works that discuss manipulation of the spine; Manipulation, Orthopedic is used as a heading for works that discuss manipulation of other joints or bones. See MeSH for a complete definition of the two terms.

Chiropractic / methods is a MeSH heading that is used to describe works that discuss chiropractic techniques in general. When dealing with works that discuss particular techniques, consider a more specific named technique heading from ChiroSH. Chiropractic / methods includes technique, methodology, and procedures as they relate to chiropractic. Prefer headings for specific named techniques; for items or articles covering more than three named techniques, prefer Chiropractic / methods. See specific technique headings.

When adding subheadings to named technique headings listed in ChiroSH, consult MeSH to see the list of allowable qualifiers (subheadings) following Musculoskeletal Manipulations. These are the only subheadings that may be added to named technique headings.

Also known as: CAs

Individuals who assist the chiropractor.

Review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating the quality of chiropractic care. (Based on the MeSH term Medical Audit.)

Also known as: Clinics, Chiropractic

Facilities where chiropractic care is provided to patients. Search Chiropractic Clinics in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. (Based on the MeSH term Dental Clinics.)

Appearance of chiropractic or chiropractors in works of literature, or works that discuss the role chiropractic or chiropractors play in literature. (Based on the MeSH term Medicine in Literature.)

Also known as: CMRT

Developed by Major Bertrand De Jarnette, DO, DC; evolved from Bloodless Surgery.

In essence, CMRT involves using occipital fiber reflexes, which are palpated for patient sensitivity and then vertebra found in a specific reflex arc related to the occipital fiber are palpated also for sensitivity. While CMRT protocols need more reliability and validity study, the palpation for pain does help its reliability since palpation for pain alone has been shown to have reliability.

The sensitive vertebra in that reflex arc are then evaluated to determine if they have any visceral referred pain patterns. A patient clinical history is taken to guide any possible diagnosis. Lastly laboratory tests can be used to further help hone in on where treatment needs to be focused.

The treatment involves treating the reflex arc from the occipital fiber to the vertebra, adjusting the vertebra, and performing specific visceral reflex and organ manipulation. If this alone helps then nutritional and dietary modifications may not be needed. If nutritional and dietary modification are added and still there is no positive response referral for allopathic, acupuncture, or other allied health practitioners may be indicated.
Source: Chiropractic Manipulative Reflex Technique. WikiChiro. Accessed November 24, 2020.
See also: Bloodless Surgery, Full Spine Techniques, Reflex, Somatovisceral, Reflex, Viscerosomatic

Also known as: Chiropractic Facilities

The rooms in which the chiropractor examines and treats patients. (Based on the MeSH term Dental Offices.)

Also known as: CRTs

Chiropractic paraprofessionals qualified to engage in taking, but not reading, X-rays. (Based on the MeSH term Dental Technicians.)

Recording of pertinent information concerning a patient's condition or pain. Search Chiropractic Records in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. (Based on the MeSH term Medical Records.)
See also: Chiropractic Records, Problem-Oriented, SOAP Notes

A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, concerns, and results of relevant tests pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading. (Based on the MeSH term Medical Records, Problem-Oriented.)
See also: Chiropractic Records, SOAP Notes

Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation in the field of chiropractic.
Based on the MeSH definition of Research.

Also known as: Hospital Chiropractic Staff

Chiropractors approved to provide care to hospital patients. (Based on the MeSH term Medical Staff, Hospital.)

The relationship between a chiropractor and a patient.  Search Chiropractor-Patient Relations in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. (Based on the MeSH term Physician-Patient Relations.)

Also known as: Chiropractic Physicians, Physicians, Chiropractic, Women Chiropractors

Individuals licensed to practice chiropractic. (Based on the MeSH term Physicians.)

Women licensed to practice chiropractic. Based on the MeSH term Physicians, Women.
Search ICL for Chiropractors, Women.

Created by Virgil B. Chrane Jr. (1932-2017): The Chrane Condyle Lift alignment ... would not be considered a low force, specific upper cervical adjustment. In contrast it is a unique, dramatic, dynamic, high velocity, intense decompressive alignment of the upper cervical spine performed manually in three or four adjustive thrusts.

Also known as: CBP, Chiropractic Biophysics Technique, Chiropractic Spinal Biophysics

Developed by Donald Harrison, Ph.D., D.C.; Deanne Harrison, D.C.; and Daniel Murphy, D.C. Formerly called Chiropractic Biophysics Technique and Chiropractic Spinal Biomechanics.  Search Clinical Biomechanics of Posture in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. Search Chiropractic Biophysics Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. [ICL ID 2975]

A method of measuring the angle of a spinal curvature. Search Cobb’s Method in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.

Developed by Frederick W. Collins, D.C., N.D., D.O., M.D.

Developed by Frank Dean, D.C. at the Columbia Institute of Chiropractic (now New York Chiropractic College).
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Developed by Thurman Fleet, D.C.
See also: Full Spine Techniques

Also known as: CRA

Developed by Dick A. Versendaal, D.C.
See also: Reflex Techniques

Also known as: Cox Flexion-Distraction Technique, F/D Technique, Flexion-Distraction Technique

Developed by James M. Cox, D.C. Initially named Flexion-Distraction Technique or F/D Technique. Search Cox Technique in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Distraction Techniques

A group of procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, that were borne from the theory that restricted movement of the cranial sutures of the skull can cause a dysfunction. Search Cranial Therapy in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Bio Cranial System, Craniopathy, Craniosacral Therapy, Sacro Occipital Technique

Also known as: Cottam Cranial Adjusting

Developed by Nephi P. Cottam, D.C.
See also: Cranial Therapy, Diagnosis, Cranial

Developed by John Upledger, D.O. Search Craniosacral Therapy in the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
See also: Cranial Therapy, Diagnosis, Cranial

Developed by Alan Creed, D.C.

Developed by Glen Dolman, M.D., Robert Dolman, M.D., and Carl Delacato, M.D.

Developed by Claude Damon, D.C., and Carrie Damon, D.C.

A diagnostic technique developed by Romer Derifield, D.C.  The Derifield-Thompson test for leg length inequality (LLI) is commonly used by chiropractors to assess a need for adjustment and to evaluate the results of adjustment. [ICLID 11005 ]
See also: Thompson Terminal Point Technique

Also known as: Cranial Diagnosis

See also: Craniopathy, Craniosacral Therapy, Sacro Occipital Technique, Kinesiology, Applied [MeSH]

Also known as: DNFT Technique, Rumpt Technique, Van Rumpt Technique

Developed by Richard Van Rumpt, D.C.
See also: Full Spine Techniques, Reflex Techniques

A branch of diversified technique. Some distraction techniques make use of special adjusting tables. [ICLID 23991]
See also: Cox Technique, Diversified Technique

Developed from the work set forth by several chiropractors, osteopaths, and physical therapists. It is one of the most frequently used chiropractic techniques and is taught at most of the chiropractic colleges.
See also: Distraction Techniques, Full Spine Techniques

Developed by Jerry Hochman, D.C.

Used for general articles on chiropractic education. Based on the MeSH term Education, Medical.

Also known as: Chiropractic Education, Continuing

Programs designed to inform chiropractors of recent advances in their field. No higher degree is awarded as a result of participation in continuing education programs. Search Education, Chiropractic, Continuing in the Index to Chiropractic Literature. (Based on the MeSH term Education, Medical, Continuing.)
See also: Schools, Chiropractic

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